Glossary of Terms

Term

Definition

21 CFR Part 11

FDA rule that defines parameters by which Pharmaceutical companies can author, approve, store, and distribute records electronically.

ACL

Access Control List. A list that defines the permissions each individual or group has for any folder or file.

Active Record / Document

A record/document that has business value and should be retained based on established retention, transfer, and disposition schedules.

API

Application Programming Interface. The interface (calling conventions) by which an application program accesses operating system and other services. An API is defined at source code level and provides a level of abstraction between the application and the kernel (or other privileged utilities) to ensure the portability of the code.

Archive

The whole body of records of continuing value of an organization or individual.

Attribute

A characteristic of an object or entity; information which may be provided about elements which is in addition to the element name and its content.

Audit

Auditing is the process by which a competent, independent person accumulates and evaluates evidence about quantifiable information related to a specific economic entity for the purpose of determining and reporting on the degree of correspondence between the quantifiable information and established criteria.

Audit Trail

An electronic means of tracking interactions with records within an electronic system so that any access to the record within the electronic system can be documented as it occurs or afterward. May be used to identify unauthorized actions in relation to the records, e.g., modification, deletion, or addition.

Authenticate

To verify that system users are in fact who they identify themselves to be.

Back-up

The process by which electronic data and document stores are regularly copied to a medium that can be used to restore data and systems at the same or at an independent location.

Back File Conversion

Converting files already created into electronic media.

Bandwidth

A measure of the amount of data that is moving on a network. As the current bandwidth increases to the theoretical maximum bandwidth, effective bandwidth decreases.

Biometrics

A method of verifying an individual's identity based on measurement of the individual's physical feature(s) or repeatable actions where those features and/or actions are both unique to that individual and measurable.

Blanket PO

A PO that covers an extended period for one vendor.

BMP

Bit Map unique format for Windows electronic graphics files.

Cache

A dedicated, high speed portion of computer memory which can be used for the temporary storage of frequently used data to make the application run faster (prevents having to constantly access the data from disk/tape storage).

Check-In/Check Out

Enables collaborative authoring by enabling only one person at a time to work on a document (check-out). When a document is "checked-in" the repository is updated and the document may be checked-out by another author.

Check Requests

Miscellaneous request for cash to the accounts payable department.

Client

A general term for the remote computer or application that accesses a network server.

Client-Server Architecture vs . File-Sharing

Two common application software architectures found on computer networks. With file-sharing applications, all searches occur on the workstation, while the document database resides on the server. With client-server architecture, CPU intensive processes (such as searching and indexing) are completed on the server, while image viewing typically occurs on the client. File-sharing applications are easier to develop, but they tend to generate tremendous network data traffic in document management applications. They also expose the database to corruption through workstation interruptions. Client-server applications are harder to develop, but dramatically reduce network data traffic and insulate the database from workstation interruptions.

Closed System

An environment in which system access is controlled by persons who are responsible for the content of electronic records that are on the system.

Computer Systems Validation

Confirmation by examination and provision of objective evidence that computer system specifications conform to user needs and intended uses, and that all requirements can be consistently fulfilled.

Content

The physical file associated to the record in the database. This file may be of any format (e.g., text, graphics, and images).

Context

The given perspective of the vault or a document, in terms of Main Area / Work Area, timeframe (baseline, current, or point in history), and view (Explorer, My Working Copies, navigation view, etc.).

Controlled Document

any document for which distribution and status are to be kept current by the issuer to ensure that authorized holders or users have available the most up to date version.

Conversion

Process of changing records from one medium to another or from one format to another.

Cryptography

The discipline that embodies principles means and methods for the transformation of data in order to hide its information contents, prevent its undetected modification, and/or prevent its unauthorized use.

Data Dictionary

In databases, a centralized repository of information about the stored data, providing details of its meaning, relationship (to other data), origin, usage and format.

Data Warehouse

One or more data stores originating from prime authoritative data sources by an auditable replication process.

Day Forward Conversion

Creating or converting files into electronic media.

Decrypt

In cryptography, to convert by use of the appropriate key, encrypted text (see ciphertext) into its equivalent plaintext.

Digital Asset Management

Digital asset management systems create a centralized repository for digital files that allows the content to be archived, searched and retrieved. Digital asset management systems also allow permissions to be added to stored data, leading to the possibility of digital rights management.

Digital Certificate

In cryptography, a message that guarantees the authenticity of the data contained within it. In public key cryptography it is important that anyone using a public key can be sure about its authenticity. Such a guarantee may be issued by a Certification Authority trusted by the users, and based on assurances obtained from applicants for digital certificates. A certificate generally contains the public key owner's identity, the public key itself and its expiry date. A user supplies the certificate and the recipient decrypts it using the certification authority's public key (often performed automatically by the recipient's browser/e-mail software). The recipient gains assurance that a trusted authority has signed the user identity and corresponding public key.

Digital Rights Management

A system for protecting the copyright of data circulated via the Internet by enabling secure distribution and/or disabling illegal distribution of the data. Typically, a Digital Rights Management system protects intellectual property by either encrypting the data so that it can only be accessed by authorized users, or marking the content with a digital watermark or similar method so that the content can not be freely distributed.

Digital Signature

An electronic signature based upon cryptographic methods of originator authentication, computed by using a set of rules and a set of parameters such that the identity of the signer and the integrity of the data can be verified.

Discovery

Process when legal or regulatory investigation of records occurs to support or refute pending legal or regulatory proceedings.

Disposal Schedule

A set of instructions allocated to a folder to determine the length of time for which the folder should be retained by the organization for business purposes, and the eventual fate of the folder on completion of this period of time.

DMS

Document Management System.

Document

A document can be word processing file, a spreadsheet, a project management schedule, a graphics file, a CAD or engineering drawing, paper scanned as an image, a slide show presentation, audio and even video, or any similar item (use your imagination) that can be contained in a electronic file. Some document management systems allow you to manage external items that aren't electronic files. For example, you could manage & track a shared overhead projector or laptop computer, the physical copies of a book or magazine, etc. just by keeping meta-data on it.

Document Management

A systematic method for storing, locating, and keeping track of information that is valuable to a business. The key characteristics of a document management system are the ability to manage information, to collaborate when creating information, to distribute the information, and to allow secure access to the greatest number of people.

Document Retention

Component of Records Management program that defines the period of time records are to be maintained and specific procedures for the transfer and disposition of records.

Dynamic Collection

A view that returns the results of a stored query definition. Documents may not be manually added to or deleted from this type of a collection. Dynamic collection definitions may be shared.

EDI

Electronic Data Interchange. In computing and communications, the transmission of documents from one computer to another over a network. Although EDI is sometimes carried out over direct links between trading partners (and increasingly the Internet), it is more usual to involve a value added supplier to operate an electronic mailbox through which documents are exchanged on a store and collect basis, similar to e-mail.

EDM

Electronic Document Management. The management of different kinds of documents in an enterprise that uses computer programs and storage. An EDM system allows an enterprise and its users to create a document or capture a hard copy in electronic form, store, edit, print, process, and otherwise manage documents in image, video, and audio, as well as in text form. An EDM system usually provides a single view of multiple databases and may include scanners for document capture, printers for creating hard copies, storage devices such as redundant array of independent disks systems, and computer server and server programs for managing the databases that contain the documents.

Effectivity

Determines when a property value can be changed and whether the change is maintained in history mode.

Electronic Document

A document which is in electronic form.

Electronic Record

Any combination of text, graphics, data, audio, pictorial, or other information representation in digital form that is created, modified, maintained, archived, retrieved, or distributed by a computer system.

Electronic Signature

A computer data compilation of any symbol or series of symbols executed, adopted, or authorized by an individual to be the legally binding equivalent of the individual's handwritten signature.

E-mail

Electronic mail. A method of sending mail to someone over the Internet.

Encryption

The process of transforming information into an unintelligible form in such a way that the original information cannot be obtained ("one-way" encryption) or cannot be obtained without using the inverse decryption process ("two-way" encryption).

ERM

Electronic Records Management.

Extranet

An intranet that is partially accessible to authorized outsiders. Where an intranet resides behind a firewall and is accessible only to people who are members of the same company or organization, an extranet provides various levels of accessibility to others. Extranets are becoming a very popular means for businesses and their partners to exchange corporate information.

Field

Computer-allocated space for data input.

File Server

In a local area network (LAN), a computer that provides access to files for workstations that are connected to the network.

Firewall

A security system used to prevent unauthorized access between networks (both internal/internal, and internal/external) by examining and filtering IP data packets. A firewall will allow only approved traffic in and/or out by filtering packets based on source/destination IP address, source/destination port. The firewall inspects the identification information associated with all communication attempts and compares it to a rule-set consistent with the organization's security policy. Its decision to accept or deny the communication is then recorded in an electronic log.

FTP

File Transfer Protocol. Allows users to send and receive certain files from one computer to another on the Internet.

Functional Analysis

Functional analysis is the analysis of business activity. To undertake this analysis you must collect information from documentary sources and interviews; identify and document each business function, activity, transaction; establish a hierarchy of business functions, activities and transactions, that is, a business classification scheme; and identify and document the flow of business processes and the transactions which comprise them.

GIF

Graphic Interchange Format. It was originally created by the CompuServe Online Service.

GMP

Good Manufacturing Practices.

GUI

Graphical User Interface (pronounced "Goo-ey").

Handwritten Signature

The scripted name or legal mark of an individual handwritten by that individual and executed or adopted with the present intention to authenticate a writing in a permanent form. The act of signing with a writing or marking instrument such as a pen or stylus is preserved. The scripted name or legal mark, while conventionally applied to paper, may also be applied to other devices that capture the name or mark.

Hard Copy

Recorded information copied from a computer onto paper or some other durable surface, such as microfilm.

Help Desk

Sometimes called a "service desk", provides a focal point for providing first line incident support; help with using IT-based business systems; and management reporting on IT service quality.

History Mode

If enabled in InnoCielo Meridian, allows users to view the vault as it appeared in the past by identifying either named baselines or specific points in time. Also allows users to view prior versions of documents.

HTML

Hypertext Markup Language. The programming language used for web pages. It is called a "mark-up" language because it is used to describe the formatting to be used to display the document. The html file contains both the text and code (called tags). It is read by a web browser, which interprets the code and displays the web pages in the format specified by the HTML.

HTTP

Hypertext Transport Protocol. The protocol of the WWW.

Hybrid Document

Typically associated to a single document composed of both a raster and a vector file overlayed on one another and managed as one document.

Import

The act of creating a new file and incorporating content from an external file into the repository as the file's content.

Inactive Record / Document

A record/document that has business value but is not readily used that should be transferred and retained in less expensive or accessible space and media based on established retention, transfer, and disposition schedules.

Incident

An operational event that is not part of the normal operation of a system. It will have an impact on the system, although this may be slight or transparent to the users.

Indexing

Pertaining to record keeping, the process of establishing and applying terms or codes to records, to be used to retrieve them and to search for and analyze information in records across classifications or categories.

Inheritance

Principle by which an object can take on a metadata attribute of its 'parent' entity, either by Inheritance on creation where the subordinate (or 'child') object takes the value of that attribute when it is created; or by Retrospective inheritance where either the attribute of the parent object is changed or the parent object is altered.

Intranet

Restricted access networks, usually confined to a single agency. Most documents on an intranet are stored as web pages so they appear to be the same as on the Internet. Intranets are used to allow multiple people within an agency to access and exchange documents in a relatively secure environment.

IP

Internet Protocol. . The Internet Protocol is a standard convention for computers attached to the Internet. It is a best effort delivery system that takes data and tries to get it from one computer to another over a network. No promises are given that the data will arrive error-free or even arrive to the destination computer.

ISO

International Organization for Standardization. An international organization headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland concerned with the development of standards. Participation in ISO is through national standards organizations such as ANSI (American National Standards Institute). ISO standards are adopted by a vote of member national standards body and are reviewed and updated through on-going processes specified by the ISO by-laws.

Jpeg

Jpeg derives its name from the Joint Photographic Experts Group who created the standard. Jpeg or jpg handles 24-bit (or 16.7 million colors) color and it is one of the smallest image file sizes (on disk).

LAN

Local Area Network. A network that connects PCs and other computers within a limited geographic area by high-performance cables so that users can exchange information, share expensive peripherals, and draw on the resources of a massive secondary storage unit, called a file server.

Legal Hold

Term that refers to holding a record in its current form and availability due to legal or regulatory proceedings. Supersedes any established record/document retention, transfer, and disposition schedules. Also known as a Place Hold.

Life Cycle

The records life cycle is the life span of a record from its creation or receipt to its final disposition. It is usually described in three stages: creation, maintenance and use, and final disposition.

Lockbox

Bank account with financial institution where customers send Remittance Packages.

Login

The act of connecting to a computer and being authenticated as a legitimate user. The usual requirements are a valid user name (or user ID) and password, but in higher risk scenarios a user may also have to insert a physical token (e.g. a smartcard) and/or provide biometric proof of identity.

Main Area

The default area of the vault in InnoCielo Meridian Enterprise that is the repository for released documents.

Matching Process

Matching of the Remittance Advice, Check, and Aged Receivables balance. Remittance may include Debit Memos and/or documentation of Discounts taken.

Metadata

Data describing stored data: that is, data describing the structure, data elements, interrelationships, and other characteristics of electronic records.

Middleware

Software that is neither part of the operating system, nor an application. It occupies a layer between the two, providing applications with an interface for receiving services. Common examples are communications programs and transaction processing monitors.

Migration

Act of moving records from one system to another, while maintaining the records' authenticity, integrity, and reliability.

Non-PO Invoice

Invoice sent to the customer that does not have a corresponding PO. Usually for services (insurance, utilities, consulting, etc) or smaller items.

Non-proprietary

 

Software application that is not owned or controlled solely by one company or institution.

OCR

Optical Character Recognition. A software process that recognizes printed text as alphanumeric characters.

Off-the-Shelf Software

A generally available software component for which the user can not claim complete software life cycle control.

Open System

An environment in which system access is not controlled by persons who are responsible for the content of electronic records that are on the system.

Packing Slip

Order shipment documents attached to items purchased and sent to the customer. Also known as Receiving Documents or Bill of Lading.

Parent-Child

A relationship between elements such that the element known as the child is contained by the parent.

Password

In Access Control, confidential authentication information, usually composed of a string of characters, that may be used to control access to physical areas and to data.

PDF

Portable Document Format. PDF is the de facto standard for the secure and reliable distribution and exchange of electronic documents and forms around the world, with a ten-year track record. PDF is a universal file format that preserves the fonts, images, graphics, and layout of any source document, regardless of the application and platform used to create it. Adobe¨ PDF files are compact and complete, and can be shared, viewed, and printed by anyone with free Adobe Reader¨ software.

PNG

Portable Network Graphic. It is a new format, currently supported by plug-ins in the Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer browsers. PNG combines the quality and size of jpegs with the viewing speed of gifs producing quality results.

PO

Purchase Order. Order sent to a vendor.

Postscript

This is a document storage format. It's actually an image representation of a document. It does not include any data definition capabilities.

Predicate Rule

Requirements set forth in the Act, the PHS Act, or any FDA regulation, with the exception of part 11.

Properties

The descriptive characteristics that are part of file type definitions and are automatically assigned to every file of that type. Each document type has its own set of properties. Properties are used primarily to help locate and organize files in the repository.

Protocol

A set of rules that must be followed for any data communications to be made. Protocols enable totally different platforms (e.g. computers connected to the Internet) to communicate with each other. For one computer to communicate with another, both must adhere to the same protocol(s).

Public Key

In cryptography, the key, in an asymmetric encryption system, of a user's key set that is known to other users.

Query

In computing, a specific set of instructions for extracting particular data from a database.

Quick Change

A method for performing a change in InnoCielo that bypasses the defined document workflow. Quick Changes require only two steps: Start and Release (Quick Changes may also be Revoked). Whether or not the Quick Change increments the revision level is an option dependent on the document type.

RAID

Redundant Array of Independent Disks. A collection of hard disks that act as a single unit. Files on RAID drives can be duplicated ("mirrored") to preserve data. RAID systems may vary in levels of redundancy, with no redundancy being a single, non-mirrored disk as level 0, two disks that mirror each other as level 1, on up to level 5, the most common.

RDBMS

Relational Database Management System. Database system in which information is stored in separate tables but which can be related.

Real Time Viewer

Provides rapid view access to native drawing files without the authoring application.

Reassign

The process of taking a document from a Work Area, discarding the current version or releasing it to the Main Area, and then creating a new version of the document in the Work Area context again. The document in the Main Area will remain locked for change.

Record

Evidence of something an organization did, a memorial of business activity, and information that a company intends on retaining to conduct ordinary business.

Records Management

The discipline and organizational function of managing records to meet operational business needs, accountability requirements and community expectations.

Recovery

The process of recovering electronic data or documents, without loss, from a corrupted state caused by system or other errors.

Redlines

A method by which a user can provide feedback on viewed data by marking up or annotating/redlining documents. Markup files are 2D or 3D overlays on the original document where the user can attach comments and entities. These markups are saved separately from the original, leaving it unchanged. Markup files are associated with the original document, allowing collaboration partners to immediately see what feedback has been created.

Reference

A relationship between two or more documents. References may be generated in InnoCielo automatically (e.g. AutoCAD X-Refs), or may be created manually by the user.

Regression Testing

Rerunning test cases which a program has previously executed correctly in order to detect errors spawned by changes or corrections made during software development and maintenance.

Release

The process of removing a document from a work area and replacing the version in the Main Area. The old document is maintained as a prior version. If work areas are not used, a document is released when it completes the document workflow.

Reliability

The ability of a system or component to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time.

Remittance Advice

Document advice detached from original Customer Invoice sent in with check payment. Associates check with invoice(s) paid. Customers may include similar information detailing invoice(s) paid with on check stub attached to check.

Remittance Package

Includes Remittance, Check, and related Debut Memo if applicable. Accounts Receivable personnel will also refer to this as Remits or Remittances.

Rendition

Instance of a record rendered into another software format by a process entirely within the control of the ERM/EDM system, without loss of content. The content and most of the metadata (i.e.all except the relational linking back to the native format record and details of the software format) are identical. Renditions may be required for preservation or access / viewing purposes.

Replace

The act of making a new document based on an existing document in InnoCielo. A new document name will be assigned and a reference will automatically be created between the original document and the new document. The original document will be retired. All assemblies that reference the document will refer to the previous document until they are opened for editing, at which point the user will be notified that the part was replaced. Only approved, released documents may be replaced.

Requisition

A formal request to purchase items.

Restore

The process of restoring an electronic data or document store from back-up media at the same or an alternate location. Normally only required in the event of a general disaster and may involve some data loss from work done after the last viable back-up.

Retention Schedule

A set of instructions allocated to a class or file to determine the length of time for which its records should be retained by the organization for business purposes, and the eventual fate of the records on completion of this period of time.

Retire

The act of withdrawing a document from usage. The document remains in the Main Area as a released document and can be viewed, derived, and referenced, but is read-only and can no longer be edited.

Review

The act of evaluating a document prior to the approval process.

Revision Control

Maintains multiple versions (revisions) of a document making it possible to recover older versions. Each time a document is checked-in a new version is created, made current, and the older version is archived.

Revoke

The act of rescinding a change to a document. The document is restored back to the state it was in prior to the beginning of the change. If the document has not been submitted at any point since its creation, the document is deleted.

Risk

In information security, the potential that exists for damage or unwanted consequences to arise from a threat exploiting a vulnerability to cause an impact. Risk management strategies aim to reduce risk to an acceptable level by implementing controls designed to reduce threat, vulnerability or impact, or a combination of these.

SAN

Storage Area Network. A network of storage disks. In large enterprises, a SAN connects multiple servers to a centralized pool of disk storage. Compared to managing hundreds of servers, each with their own disks, SANs improve system administration. By treating all the company's storage as a single resource, disk maintenance and routine backups are easier to schedule and control. In some SANs, the disks themselves can copy data to other disks for backup without any processing overhead at the host computers.

Six Sigma

Six Sigma is a highly structured program for improving business processes and represents the latest incarnation of the quality movement. The program, grounded in efforts to improve manufacturing quality during the 1980s, brings the methods and analytic tools of engineers to bear on the questions, What matters to customers?, and Where will changes to work processes most improve these points?

Smartcard

A plastic card (of identical dimensions to a credit card) that has electronic logic embedded in it in the case of a stored data card, or a microprocessor in the case of cards with processing ability. Smartcards are commonly used to perform digital signatures, authenticate users for access control purposes, and encrypt or decrypt messages.

Spoiled Record / Document

A record/document that has no business value and should be disposed based on established retention, transfer, and disposition schedules.

SQL

Structured Query Language. Standard data dialect used in most RDBMS and ORDBMS systems. The language basically allows developers to create/add/modify/delete data from a certain source or sources under certain conditions in a certain order.

SSL

Secure Socket Layer. A system of WWW information encryption that occurs between the application and transmission layer in the network hierarchy.

Static Collection

A view that returns the stored results of a search in InnoCielo. Documents may be manually added to or deleted from this type of a collection.

Subrogate

Selling an aged customer receivable to a collection agency.

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol.

Three-Way Match

Matching of the PO, invoice, and packing slip.

Thumbnails

Small versions of an image used for quick overviews or to get a general idea of what an image looks like.

TIFF

Tagged Image File Format.

TQM

Total Quality Management.

TWAIN

Application programs that support Twain allow optical input devices to be controlled from inside the application. The TWAIN initiative was originally launched in 1992 by leading industry vendors who recognized a need for a standard software protocol and applications programming interface (API) that regulates communication between software applications and imaging devices. TWAIN defines that standard.

Unretire

The act of restoring a document that has been retired to a useable, released status in InnoCielo.

Update

A new release of an existing software product. A software update usually adds relatively minor new features to a product or addresses issues found after the program was released. Updates can be indicated by small changes in the software version numbers, such as the change from version 4.0 to version 4.0b.

Upgrade

The new or enhanced version of a software product that is considered to have major enhancements or improvement to its features or functionality. Software upgrades are typically indicated by a significant (integer) change in the version number, such as from version 4.0 to version 5.0.

URL

Universal Resource Locator. It's that sometimes very long string of characters at the top of your browser that starts with HTTP:// and often includes "WWW". If you put an address there then press Enter, it "tells" the browser what page to open in the World Wide Web or once your browser opens the address you entered, the URL indicates what page is already open.

Validated System

A system with documented evidence that provides a high degree of assurance that a specific process will consistently produce a result meeting its predetermined specification and quality attributes.

Vault

A term used to designate the secure storage location for documents in an EDM system.

Vendor Invoice

Bill sent to company from vendor.

Version

A particular issue or release of a hardware or software product. Version numbers are generally represented by an integer combined with a decimal number (i.e. 3.2). Successive releases of a program are assigned increasingly higher numbers. Major releases are reflected with whole number increments; minor releases with decimal increments. When discussing software versions, an "x" is often used after the version integer to designate a range of minor releases. For example, Internet Explorer 5.x refers to all minor releases of Internet Explorer 5.

Virus

Computer programs designed to destroy data on a computer, so named as they tend to replicate in the host system.

Voucher

Synonymous with a vendor invoice approval. Usually a stamp on the actual invoice received from the vendor with required and dated approval initials/signature.

W3C

World Wide Web Consortium. An industry consortium, hosted by MIT, which has taken over most of the development and promotion of standards for the World Wide Web.

WAN

Wide Area Network. A telecommunications network that is dispersed over a wide geographic area – possible world wide - as distinct from a local area network (LAN) that is generally confined to a confined geographic area, such as a building. A wide area network may be privately owned or rented; either way it usually requires the use of public (shared user) networks (e.g. the Internet) and/or leased communication circuits.

Watermark

A textual or graphic set of information that is temporarily added to documents as they are printed.

Wire Transfers

Another form of electronic payment made by a financial institution on behalf of the customer.

Work Area

A separate area of a InnoCielo vault reserved for documents undergoing a particular set of work (i.e. a project or an engineering change order).

Workflow

The tasks, procedural steps, organizations or people, required input and output information, and tools needed for each step in a business process. A workflow approach to analyzing and managing a business process can be combined with an object-oriented programming approach, which tends to focus on documents, data, and databases.

Workflow Manager

In a document workflow process, the user that is responsible for assigning documents to other users for change and/or review (depending on the workflow configuration). By default, the Workflow Manager is the user that initiates the change on the document.

Working Copy

The method of revising a document when the workflow is governed by the defined states and transition of the Work Area in InnoCielo, rather than the document workflow. To begin modification of a document, a working copy must be created. At that point, only the user modifying the document sees the new version of the document (all others see the previous version, and that it is currently under revision). When the document revision is complete, the working copy is submitted, and becomes the active version.

WWW

World Wide Web. Refers to the information resources of the Internet that are accessible via web pages using a web browser. Technically speaking, the WWW refers to the abstract cyberspace of information whereas the Internet is the physical side of the network, i.e. the computers and communications that link computers throughout the World.

WYSIWYG

What you see is what you get. The monitor view of documents/files on most word processing and desktop publishing software and now some web page creation tools that give you a very good idea of how the printed page will look while you are viewing it on the screen.

XML

Extensible Markup Language. A set of tags and declarations used as a complement to HTML in the construction of web pages.

X-Ref

The term used in AutoCAD to refer to drawings linked to the current drawing. Any changes to linked reference drawings (X-Refs) are automatically displayed in the current drawing when the current drawing is opened. Relationships between the drawings may be referred to as "parent-child" relationships. The current drawing is the parent; and linked drawings are children.

   
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